The Electric Vehicle Revolution. How to start Electric Vehicle Research Project ?

The Electric Vehicle Revolution.

Hello In this Post we are going to talk about electric vehicle revolution. How does automotive industry change? What is electric vehicle revolution? Is it really happening? A technical revolution is a period in which one or more technologies is replaced by another technology in short amount of time. It is an era of accelerated technological progress characterised by a new innovation whose rapid application and diffusion cause an abrupt change in the society. First of all, lets check out the growth of internal combustion engine vehicles. IC engine vehicles are the common mode of transportation all over the world.

Why weren’t electric vehicles implemented earlier even though electric motor was invented long ago? 

IC engine vehicles are the most popular vehicles in the automotive industry. It is mainly due to the invention of IC engines which are matured and comparatively low cost technology. 1886 is considered as the birth year of the modern gasoline vehicles when Karl Benz patented Benz Patent Motor Wagen. American manufacturer Ford Motor Company widely manufactured gasoline cars after 1908. The rapid of slow change of automobile technology from internal combustion engine to electric vehicle is considered as electric vehicle revolution. Have a look at two photographs of 5th Avenue New York which had been captured in 1900 and 1913. That shows the difference of vehicles on the road. It is hard to find a car in the first photograph that was captured in 1900. But it could not find a single horse cart in the second photograph thet was captured in 1913. An abrupt change in the pattern of the vehicles happened in just 13 years. Here we can notice that the advantages of gasoline cars, technological improvements of the engine, etc. fuelled the growth of motor vehicles. 

Why electric cars are important ? 

Environmental pollution from automobiles, depletion of fossil fuels, and advantages of electric vehicles make it a better choice for the customer. The main pollutant from the gasoline car are the following. First one is Carbon Monoxide. When the fuel is not burnt completely it emits carbon monoxide. The second one is hydrocarbons, A car emits toxic compounds of hydrogen and carbon. The next one is nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen and oxygen reacts and forms nitrogen oxides. Next one is particulate matter. They are small particles of foreign substances in the air contributes to atmospheric haze and damage peoples’s lungs. The environmental protection agency estimates that 75% of carbon monoxide pollution in the air in the US is from motor vehicles. Alternative fuels in the vehicles is one of the methods to reduce the environmental pollution. But the vehicle manufacturers are mainly focusing on electric vehicles now a days. World’s popular automobile manufacturers have already declared their plans to manufacture electric vehicles. Most of them have already started manufacturing and selling electric vehicles. 

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Where does the electric vehicle revolution happen? 

The Chinese market is the fast growing electric vehicle market in the World. They had surpassed the US in 2005. Fortunately, or unfortunately China produces more than 50% electric vehicle batteries in the world. There is an interesting statistics from Australia. 2017 electric vehicle sales were up 4000% in Australia compared to 2011. Tesla motors plans to sell 1 million electric cars by 2020. VW would sell 2-3 million electric vehicles by 2025. Another manufacturer Ford would develop 30 new electric cars by 2020. Volvo told that they will sell 1 million electric cars by 2025. Honda’s plan is to shift 2/3 of their total production to electric vehicles by 2030. It includes battery electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Another key player BMW will be selling 15-25% of their total cars as electric by 2025. You know that by 2035, it is estimated that there will be more than 11 million electric cars bought every year worldwide. There are many factors affect the electric car revolution. The government regulations and subsidies, infrastructure for electric vehicles, marketing of e-mobility benefits, and cost competitiveness. There is electric battery revolution that fuels the growth of electric vehicles. The cost of electric vehicle batteries is one of the major hurdles standing in the way of widespread use of electric cars. The life span of the battery also affects the popularity of electric vehicles. Interestingly the cost of electric car batteries shows a reduction for past few years. And the trend would continue for sure since the focus of the research are on electric vehicle batteries. Another factor in the electric vehicle revolution is the growth of charging stations. Study of MarketWatch indicates that the electric vehicle charging station market is expected to exceed more than US $30 billion by 2024 at a compound annual growth rate of 40% in the giver forecast period. The global electric vehicle charging station market witnessed a vital growth in the recent past. The quickly rising popularity of electric vehicle among the customers has considerably contributed to the growth of electric vehicle charging market as well. Both the charging station and electric vehicles market are complementary.

How to start Electric Vehicle Research Project ?

I get a lot of emails and messages asking how to do an electric vehicle research project. In this short video I am gong to share with you a few tips to do electric vehicle research projects. You can do electric vehicle research projects in Control systems, power electronics, and power systems. It has scope in mechanical engineering and chemical engineering as well. If you want to do an electric vehicle simulation project in MATLAB, I recommend you the tool ADVISOR. I will provide the link in the description.a It is a free MATLAB graphic user interface that you can download and use. If you don’t want to develop the model from the basic equations it will be very useful for you. Many researchers use this tool. Read the user manual and learn how to use the software. It is very easy and convenient to use. You can do a lot of electric vehicle analysis using this tool. You can develop and study your own control strategies for electric vehicle using this tool. For masters and bachelors degree I believe that the tool will be very useful. 

How to develop the vehicle model ?

You can develop the vehicle model from the basic dynamic equations as well. There are a lot of opportunities if you want to do electric vehicle research projects in power systems field. Vehicle to Grid, Charging station related projects, the impact of charging stations on power utility grid, how to improve the power system stability if you use a lot of charging stations together. You can model IEEE standard bus systems and electric vehicles together to study the impact of electric vehicles on the power grid. Don’t forget to watch the video where we listed around 75 electric vehicle research projects. If you want to do projects in power electronics field, then focus on chargers, dc-dc converters, etc, You may develop an intelligent bidirectional charger for electric vehicles. Energy storage systems are very important in electric vehicles. 

How to improve the power and energy density of electric vehicle batteries? 

It will also be a good research topic. An electric vehicle has both regenerative braking and friction braking. How do we improve the performance of both of these braking systems? We can not use the regenerative braking efficiently at very low speeds. How do we tackle this? State of charge estimation for electric vehicle batteries, thermal management for electric vehicle batteries to extend the life of the batteries, etc, are a few projects related to electric vehicle batteries. You may develop a battery management system that has very less idle power consumption. I randomly told you some topics that related to electric vehicles. You can also find a lot of topics where you can do research. I am quiet sure that the tool ADVISOR will help you out here to do your project. You can analyse the impact of the mass of the vehicle in the total energy consumption of the vehicle.

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